Whew. That was hard. I’m now officially “under roof”. I knew the roof would be a multi-part series, but it was more long and drawn out than I thought.
I am now far behind my goal for finishing the home in 2-3 years. In fact, I thought back in October that I might be able to finish the roof by the end of 2018. We are now halfway through 2019.
On the bright side, I’m still within budget, and now that the roof is done, I can take a breather and finish projects I left hanging like installing a motor in my pickup. Also, much of the remaining work can be done on the ground – no more dragging construction materials up to the roof. How much did I drag up there? I won’t bore you with the details, but I estimate about 35,000 lbs, not including tar paper, nails, screws and insulation. Along with the ~22,000 pounds of rafters, and the 10,000 pound ridge pole, this puts the weight of the roof around 67,000 pounds.
The shingle elevator saved my back and knees. I put 109 bundles of shingles on the roof. Each bundle weighs about 60 pounds. With the shingle elevator, I was able to load three or four bundles at a time, hook the rope to the car and back up, and then climb the ladder and off-load them onto the roof.
Also, since my roof is not exactly square, I had some issues keeping my shingle lines straight when I got to the ridge. But I noticed when watching some how-to videos that the professionals have issues with non-square roofs as well, so I feel pretty good about my not-perfect roof.
We still need to clean up the inside of the house- I’ve got scraps of foam in there, extra lumber, plywood and a lot of junk leftover from installing the roof. I noticed during a rain storm that the ground on the West side of the house is a bit higher right along the drip line than the ground is inside the house. The rain was running down to the inside of the house. I think I’ll ask the neighbor to bring his disc-harrow over and plow up that side, and then I’ll shovel the dirt to the inside of the house. That way, the inside will be just a bit higher than the outside, forcing the water to run the other direction.
I think the very next step is to trench the sewer, water, and maybe electrical. It’ll certainly be no fun to trench if I wait until after I get the subfloor in. And then I need the floor joists and the hangers, the insulation, etc., etc.
A guy I met in a sawmill group on facebook offered to make my second floor beams for really cheap. He’s in Georgia and said he’ll deliver them. I’m not ready for them, but the price is so good I can’t pass it up. I’d make them myself, but I’m currently out of trees.
Other things that need to be done in no particular order:
frame in the gables
install 1st floor
install 2nd floor
doors / windows
Sigh. The really cool part – cutting down trees, making pulleys, stacking the walls, installing the ridge pole, decking the roof- is over. From here on out, it’s almost all just normal 2×4 construction- framing, cabinets, hardwood floors, tile, plumbing, etc.
The shingle elevator was made out of wood, and it broke after the week of rain weakened it. So I welded a new one. It works better, but I’m worried about the rails it rides, which are 22 foot long 2×10’s.
I’ve made a lot of progress on the roof- the frame is complete, the insulation is completely installed on both sides. I had to stop and measure how much insulation I had left- and use the hot wire foam cutter to cut the 9″ thick pieces down to size – they were too thick to fit in the boxes. Also, I had plenty of 5″ thick pieces, but not enough 7.5″ pieces. I found that 7.5″ is the sweet spot- the foam has a stated R-value of 4.6 per inch, so a 7.5 inch thick layer gets me R34.5, where only R30 is required. This doesn’t count the value of the 2″ thick decking, or the plywood, or the underlayment, which doesn’t add much, but does add some. To make the 7.5″ thick foam, I set the wire at 7.5″ above the cutting deck, then stacked two 5.5″ pieces on top of each other and fed them through the foam cutter to make a 7.5″ stack. I have enough foam left over for a very well insulated chicken coop.
Some folks have spent thousands on their insulation- even when buying used. I was able to get away with $400 for all the foam I could stuff into a huge U-haul van and my trailer pulled behind. Extremely cheap!
2x lumber isn’t what it says it is….
I wish I had thought more about the fact that a 2×10 and 2×8 were really 1 1/2×9 1/4 and 1 1/2×7 1/4, because that threw off some of my measurements. See, the ribs are 2×10’s, spaced 48″ OC apart. But the plywood is only rated to span 24″, so I needed a support between the 2×10’s. I didn’t want to just space the 2×10 ribs at 24″ because that messes up my 48″ foam, and a 2×4 is a lot cheaper than a 2×10 no matter how you slice it. Besides, a solid piece of foam is a better insulator than a skinny 24″ strip of foam- that’s just simple physics.
Anyway, I planned to just put an 8′ long 2×4 between the 2×10 ribs, on top of the 2×8’s as a support, because the height of a 2×8 cross member + a 2×4 = height of a 2×10, right? wrong. There’s a 2″ vertical gap between the 2×8 & the 2×10, but the 8′ 2×4 laying on top of the 2×8 cross member is only 1 1/2″ thick, so there was a 1/2″ gap I had to fill between the top of the crossmember and the top of the 2×10 rib. I admit I actually couldn’t figure out at first why my plywood was sagging in the middle between the ribs. Oops.
Getting everything on the roof
Yes, this continues to be a problem. There are multiple solutions, but the main thing to remember is to keep the main thing (building the roof) the main thing. It’s easy to dream about a jib crane or some contraption with a winch motor that lifts everything up on the roof at the push of a button, but at the end of the day, the question isn’t “how did you do it?” as much as it’s “Did you do it?”. Sigh…..Up and down the ladder.
I figured out that I can lift four sheets of foam at a time with just a rope. So that helps. But the plywood is dangerously unwieldy, so I could only manage 5 sheets at a time using the elevator, or in the photo above, one at a time. In this case, it saved me carrying it from the elevator, up over the peak, and then down to be installed. You do what you have to do to get it done.
And the 2x lumber- well, I can lift about 30 of those at a time with the elevator, so that’s nice.
Nevertheless, I do have backup plans for a jib crane to lift shingles in case the shingle elevator goes kaput.
I added a 1/2″ x 1″ spacer to the 2×8 to lift the 2×4 up to the correct height. And on the boxes I hadn’t finished, I went ahead and lifted the 2×8 so that when I added the 2×4, it would be level with the 2×10. If I ever do this again…..
Using my Magnesium oil almost daily to stop the aches and pains of going up and down the ladder. It’s amazing stuff- helps the muscles heal, and protects joints.
I’ve used the car to run the elevator- just tie a rope to the front of the car, the other end goes to the pulley attached to the lift. Then back up, and everything goes up. Once it’s at the top of the lift, I climb the ladder and unload the supplies onto the roof. I carried almost every 4×8 sheet from the West side of the roof, up over the peak of the roof, and then down onto the East side of the roof. That was no fun, especially when it was a bit breezy.
I’m not sure how lifting shingles will end up- they are pretty heavy – about 60 lbs for each bundle. There are 99 of them…
I cut these in the roof to enable cool air from the ground to flow up the side of the house, into the roof, and out the peak. I made a template out of a scrap of T&G decking, then cut rectangular holes and covered them with heavy duty screen door mesh plus 1/4″ wire mesh. Here’s a video describing the theory of ventilation.
…And a change in roof design
When looking at the roof from the ground, you don’t see the built-up part of the roof, at least from the front of the home. This makes the roof look thin and wimpy.
As an aside, I’ve several folks pull up and ask about the house, and if they ask about the roof and the T&G decking, they always assume I used 1×6 planks. They are always surprised when I show them a scrap and they find it’s actually 2×6 planks. I get about one visitor a week that actually pulls up and wants to ask questions, while I get a half dozen gawkers who stop in the road to take a look or a photo. I’m always happy to answer questions- to me, the LHBA method is the best method for getting a really cheap house that has tons of value.
The last one that pulled up really made me think about this- yes it’s vain to build up the whole roof just for looks. On the other hand, the whole thing is probably vain, if you want to take a minimalist view- I mean, I could have just plopped a mobile home on the property and said, “done”, right? But let’s stay focused here- I started looking at the roof, and decided they were right. I asked my wife about it, and she immediately said, “I’ve always wanted the whole roof to be thick.” She knew the whole time, but just didn’t want to make an issue out of it. Yes, I can usually finish the maze a few seconds behind the rats….
“It’ll be a lot more work,” I said.
“And a bit more expensive – like $500 more.”
She doesn’t want to pull up and look at the wimpy roof and hate it every time she comes home. I agree.
It also simplifies the drip edge and other issues I was having with making nice clean looking roof lines.
So….I ordered more lumber, plywood, tar paper, etc. Don’t need any more shingles, luckily.
When I added the extra 2×10’s to the roof, I found that the roof decking isn’t exactly flat. Big surprise? No, not surprised. I’m actually surprised that the gap was 2″ or less. Probably due to my 5×12 rafters not being perfect or something. Anyway, to stop the critters from getting in there and make it look purdy, my wife gave me an idea – “why not put a piece of angled metal up there and screw the 2×10 to it, and then screw it to the deck?” It was a great idea, in fact:
That’s all for now…Next up: I’ll finish shingling the roof.
I searched high and low for a good price on the decking. The plans call for 2×6 Tongue & Groove, preferably in 16 foot lengths. Yes, 2 inches by 6 inches. It sounded really thick, and when I started looking on Craigslist, I could only find advertisements for 1×6. I checked the plans- nope, 2×6. I called the orange box people – they don’t sell it, and can’t even order it. I checked local mills, but you need a large volume mill – the equipment to make it is expensive. I finally found a supplier in Guntersville- just a few miles down the road. They had it for about $0.95 per foot. I ended up paying about $8,000 for a bunch of it. They delivered and unloaded it for $25.
I decided after talking to another LHBA member to polyurethane the boards before I put them up. Otherwise, you can crane your neck and do it after they are installed. That didn’t sound fun, so I laid out all the boards on the ground and bought 5 gallons of water based polyurethane. I actually bought every gallon of water based polyurethane in town. Went to 3 different orange box stores and bought them all out. The blue people didn’t have any. Then I spent 2 days painting them all. Then another day stacking them back up into piles.
First layer is the hardest
If you set the first layer incorrectly, when you reach the roof, your decking will be all cockeyed and stuff. The only way I could figure to get it correct was to measure from the exact intersection of the rafters down to the ends of the rafters. I had to “scary climb” up to the Ridgepole, set the tape, throw the tape measure off the house, go down to the ground to get it, go back up the ladder and measure to the end of the rafter. I had to do this 4 times- twice for each end of the house.
Then I ran a string between these two points, and put a nail on the string at each point it touched the rafters. Then I nailed up the first boards, using these nails as stops. After about 6 rows, I had enough to stand on, and now had to think about getting the bulk of the 500 boards up on the roof.
After all this, when I got up to the peak, it is still off by an inch or two. I figure this is due to not all the tongues and grooves fitting together perfectly. In my defense, there’s about 60 rows of boards on each side of the roof. Stuff is going to get out of wack over that distance. No matter, I’ll trim the last board a bit, maybe add some flashing just in case, and nobody will be able to tell.
Getting it up on the roof
I tried sneaking it in through the gable ends, but as the rows got higher, I ran out of space. Then I tried with a pulley to pull them up using the ladder as a rail, and the tractor on the opposite side of the house. I finally just pulled them up with a rope and pulley and nailed a pressure-treated 2×8 nailed to the rafters to prevent the boards from gouging the already-installed decking. Video here.
Installation pattern & finishing up
The manufacturer recommends one nail per rafter, 4 foot spacing between rafters, and staggering the joints. The brochure shows a couple of options. I put 2 nails per rafter, and used ring shank nails and a nail gun and air compressor. I also used a skillsaw when necessary to cut the ends off. I still need to go back and trim the decking to a one foot overhang past the ridge pole and cap logs. That will be scary- out on the edge of the roof, sawing the ends off.
Since the rafters are 48″ on center (4′ apart), and the T&G decking is 16 feet long, things tend to match up nicely. Also doesn’t hurt that I made my rafters 5 inches wide instead of 4 inches wide- provides more surface to nail the decking.
I left the rafters with overlap at the peak until now- it’s too dangerous to trim the overlaps before the decking is on. A friend recommended not trying to pin them until the decking was close enough to the top to provide a place to sit while installing them. It was good advice- even with the decking up close to where I could stand while I pinned the rafters, and even with being tied onto the roof- that 65 pound jackhammer could jump off the rebar at anytime and possibly throw me off the roof. It ended up not helping anyway- that ridge pole made out of sweet gum is very very hard- the jackhammer couldn’t pound the rebar into it. I had to resort to my sledge hammer. Even then, I bent a few pins trying to hammer them into that tough wood. Video here.
Underlayment is either tar paper or a synthetic sheet that allows the house to breathe, but keeps the moisture out. Water gets out of the house, but can’t come in. There’s a lot of debate over exactly where to place the underlayment on a built up roof. Talking with other LHBA members, I decided to place it directly on the decking. Tar paper is good stuff- it’s been in use for a hundred years and works great. But it only has a 30 day UV exposure rating. Knowing how slow I’m going, I needed something with a better rating- the synthetic I went with has a 90 day UV rating. I bought 4 rolls of it: 1,000 sq ft coverage per roll. It was about $60 a roll.
Installing the underlayment means we’ve reached an important point in the build: for the first time, my logs are out of the weather since I cut down that first tree so long ago. It is a huge, huge relief to reach this point. During the first rainstorm after installing the underlayment, I just stood inside the house, listening to the rain, but not feeling it. It is very humbling and satisfying to reach this point. We’ve got a ways to go yet to full “weather proof”, but I’ll take a little victory lap for now.
Roof insulation and finishing the roof: I have to decide between solid foam and spray foam. Solid foam might be slightly cheaper, but I have to have a thicker roof- 12″ thick compared to possibly only 6″ thick if I go with spray foam. I also have to install “sleepers”, which are like ribs- they lay on the roof and provide a space for the insulation to lay in. The sleepers can just be normal 2×6’s or 2×12’s. Or engineered wood I-beams. OSB goes on top of that (if using shingles), or furring strips (if using metal roof).
I estimate the roof of my log home will weigh around 50,000 lbs. In class, they taught us that you need a girder log that is crosswise to the ridge pole to increase the strength of the structure. The girder log is also known as a collar tie. Its job is to keep the walls from spreading apart due to the weight of the roof, as well as to support the second floor.
Since we used pulleys, we knew we could install the girder log at any time after we reached second floor height. We decided to wait until now.
Height of girder log
I was stuck, though, at how high to set the girder log. Our walls are almost exactly 18 feet high. Minus one foot for the first floor and another foot for the second floor gives us eight feet for each floor. But were we supposed to put the bottom or the top of the girder log at eight feet?
I ended up calling my friend and fellow LHBA member Ivan to see what he thought. He said building code specified 6 feet 8 inches for head space: as in, don’t set the girder log any lower than 6′ 8″ from the finished floor height. That was the perfect starting point. So I added a foot to that for the finished floor height (7′ 8″), and then rounded up to 8′ and placed a mark on the wall at that height. We decided the fat end of the girder log would go over the kitchen, since on that end of the house, the girder log holds up the bedroom areas as well as the bathroom and other rooms. The other end is open to the living area, so it only needs half the joists.
Installing the girder log
Installing the girder log with pulleys is fairly straightforward: get the girder log next to the house, cut a hole in the house, attach a pulley and lift until the log is in or near the hole in the wall. Attach a second pulley through the hole and pull the log into the house. Continue to adjust pulleys and lift / pull until log reaches other side of the house. Level the log, cut another hole, and pull it through. Then pin it with rebar. Make sure it is raining – you don’t want to have too much fun. 🙂
As usual, my wife was a huge help. I pulled on one pulley with the tractor, while she let me tie the other pulley to her car. My daughter watched my hand signals from inside the car and relayed them to her mom. We are at level “pulley ninjas” at this point in the game.
Installing the Girder support log (GSL)
On smaller log homes, an angle bracket can be made to support the girder log. The bracket is bolted to the middle RPSL, and the girder log rests on the bracket. On a 40×40 log home, the span is at least 20 feet between supports, so a girder support log (GSL) is required. The GSL is not hard to find- it only has to be about eight feet long. We pulled it from a scrap log we had, and picked it so it has no knots and very little bow. I dragged it with the tractor (yes, it still weighs about 500 pounds) over to the house, then used the pulleys to drag it inside.
I knew the girder log sagged a bit in the middle by about two inches (because the string level told me so!), so I measured the space between the pier and the girder and added two inches. After doing a test fit, I cut the GSL to the right length, drilled a hole in the bottom for the rebar from the pier, and then lifted it as close as I could to the girder log, which was still sagging. I chained it in place and moved the chain hoist to the girder log and lifted the sag out of it. With the sag out of the girder, I was able to just push the GSL by hand into position. Using my favorite tool (can(t) hook), I rotated the GSL into position, then lowered the girder onto it and drove a pin through the girder to keep it from slipping. Later, I’ll install 1″ all thread and bolt the GSL to the girder. This puppy ain’t going nowhere.
We install the bird blocking, which fills in the space between the rafters and the walls. I’m calling around to get the best deal I can find on 2″ x 6″ tongue and groove car decking (which is the “hardwood floor” you see when looking up at the roof from the inside), but not having much luck finding a good deal. It looks like it will cost me about $7,000 just for this part of the roof. Still need to get the underlayment, the 2×12 sleepers for the built up roof, the insulation, plywood, and shingles or metal roof (if we can afford it). The roof really will be the single most expensive part of this build. On the other hand, I can’t wait to have the whole thing dried in.
Another small milestone. Just two more logs so far, but wow, it was not easy.
RPSL’s are Ridge Pole Support Logs- their job is to hold up the Ridge Pole (RP)- the largest, longest, straightest, heaviest log in the entire build. They are very important logs, and must have no defects and be very straight. I estimate the Ridge Pole I’m going to use to be about 5 tons (for comparison, the heaviest wall log was around 3 tons). Vertical compression strength for a 12″ log averages around 650,000 lbs (about 325 tons), whereas the horizontal strength of a 12″ log averages around 20,000 lbs (about 10 tons) over a certain span. Sorry for all the math, but what this means is you can have very skinny looking RPSL’s, and they will still be strong enough for any RP.
For a 40×40, the three RPSL’s are installed on three specially sized piers- 2 RPSL’s at the walls, and one in the middle. Before I poured the concrete, the inspector came out and he didn’t like the pier size specified in the plans. He wanted them one foot deeper in the ground (meaning one foot taller). He also wanted the RPSL to stand completely on the pier with no overhang. I did one better- I made them 5.5′ square on the base, and 5.5′ tall, and almost 20″ of support for the RPSL. They are about 2 feet in the ground. I estimate the roof at about 80,000 lbs. The piers on the plans should hold about 50,000 lbs each. I estimate my beefy upgraded piers at about 70,000 lbs each.
We looked at all the logs we had left and didn’t like what we saw. Julie wanted me to cut some new logs for RPSL’s. She found a reasonably straight tree, but when I cut it down, it had an awful (awful for an RPSL, but really good for a wall log) bend in it. After looking at it over and over, we decided to use it anyway. I found another tree for the second RPSL and cut it down as well. We will put the third RPSL up after the RP is installed. I was able to cut each RPSL and peel it in one night.
It went well, except when I tried to turn one of them with my ‘can’ hook- stupid thing was so slippery from being freshly peeled that it slipped when I was turning it- it sprung back to its resting position, catching the arm of my can hook, and slammed it into my collar bone, instantly dropping me to the ground. I laid there in a daze for a few minutes before I was able to move. When I thought I could move, I felt my collarbone, thinking I broke it, but it didn’t appear to be broken. But the pain was so intense, I was light headed and thought I might lose my cookies. Luckily, I recovered enough to drive home, and was back to work the next day- but with an awful looking bruise.
Installing the RPSL’s on a 40×40 is interesting- since we are building a two-story home, the top of the wall is 20′, and our roof pitch makes the final height of the RPSL about 30′. You can easily slide a 30′ RPSL under the house, and then stand it up on the inside. I hung a pulley from the wall at 20′, and proceeded to lift the RPSL into place. But the darn thing was top-heavy somehow, and I found I needed two additional pulleys to stop it from spinning like a propeller.
Another thing was the rebar coming up out of the pier that attaches to the RPSL was in the wrong place. It was a guessing game from the beginning: The 3 oversized piers have double duty- the two on the perimeter hold up the wall logs and also hold the RPSL’s. The one in the middle holds an RPSL and a girder support log (for the second floor support). Unless you use logs that are uniform in size (like telephone poles I guess), there’s no way you can know ahead of time where the center of the RPSL will be, and so you can’t know where to place the rebar into the pier when you pour the concrete.
The solution was:
Cut the rebar off from the pier
set the RPSL in place temporarily onto the pier
measure where the RPSL will sit (you want it exactly perpendicular to the wall, plumb, and as close to the wall logs as you can get
lifting the RPSL back up off the pier
drilling a hole in the pier with a hammer drill
squeeze the structural epoxy into the hole
put a stick of rebar in the hole so that 12″ sticks out the top, wait 5 minutes for it to set up
drill a hole in the bottom center of the RPSL where you marked it in step 3
re-install RPSL onto the rebar
re-check that RPSL is centered and plumb and lines up with the other RPSL
check again just to be sure
bolt RPSL to wall on every other wall log
Since our wall logs are so tapered and crooked, the RPSL doesn’t butt up against the wall next to every log. So instead of settling for the ugly look of all-thread between the RPSL and the wall logs, another nice idea from the LHBA forum was to install black pipe in between the gaps, giving it a nice uniform look. It was not easy, but it was worth it. I may counter sink the nuts and washers and put nice plugs over the holes, but I can do that any time.
Drilling a 5/8″ hole through a 24″ log, and then onto another 20″ log presents another challenge- I needed a longer bit- like 48″ long at the minimum. I went to the orange box people – $75 for one of those! wow! I went down the regular drill bit aisle and found a short one for $12. Then I went over to the neighbor’s and welded a 4′ stick of rebar to the drill bit. I ground down the chuck end so it would fit in my 1/2″ drill. It worked very well- just had to back it out of the hole 20 times (flutes were too short to get the shavings all the way out). No matter, it wasn’t too bad, and went pretty quick- after I got my scaffolding in place.
Yeah- scaffolding. Even though I don’t have temporary flooring in place and moving the scaffolding right now is a pain, the ladder is just dangerous for trying to drill horizontal holes – it’s usually too far away, or too close because of the angle of the ladder. The 13 amp drill I use can break your wrist if you don’t hold it right. Scaffolding will be invaluable when we get to chinking and a thousand other tasks coming up. And I got the scaffolding from California for about $600, including shipping. I love Craigslist.
I was going to go right onto getting the RP installed, but from what I’ve discovered, I should get my rafters ready before I call the crane. Yes, I’m calling in the big boys. I wanted to do this all myself, but a couple of realities have surfaced in my mind:
#1: I don’t want to die installing a 5 ton log 30′ in the air, balancing it on 2 RPSL’s. This is seriously heavy stuff. Yes, the wall logs were heavy, but not this heavy. Lots of things could go wrong.
#2: I would have to spend $260 on 2 chain hoists (I need some 5 ton hoists for the RP), plus $160 on 2 new 13,000 lb chains. That’s over $400. The crane guys say $130/hr, 4 hour minimum. That’s just over $500. I think my life is worth at least $100.
#3: I can probably get the RP and all 28 rafters installed with a crane in about 4 hours. If I do it myself, I figure a couple weeks getting the RP supports in place, and about a month to get the rafters up. Saves me a month of work, for just a little extra $$$.
We are nearly out of trees that are straight enough for rafters, so I talked to one of my neighbors- she’s letting me have probably a dozen more trees from her 5 acres for my rafters, if I bring her a plate of stuffed lasagna shells my wife made. I think there are probably a dozen (trees, not stuffed lasagna shells- stay with me) on my property, and probably about half a dozen on the next door property. I just have to cut them, move them, rack them, and then mill them into 4×12’s (work= yes, but I don’t have to peel them – yay!).
Stay tuned. I’m sure there will be a video of a crane and a 5-ton log flying over my house in the near future….